Laboratory Design and Development
Gossman Consulting, Inc. provides
laboratory design and development expertise to their customers. GCI
began designing analytical laboratories in 1980 and that has continued
present, with the latest design in 1997 for a laboratory in Santiago,
GCI has designed and overseen the building of a number of laboratories
international clients in addition to many our personnel have designed
in the United States. In general, the laboratories that have been
for industrial production facilities rather than for other applications
pure research or medical testing. In production labs, the development
design must take into account the needs for timely and accurate
with which to make production decisions. Yet, the testing must be cost
effective. Additionally, most of the labs provide environmental and
compliance test data as well as the production data. The laboratories
personnel have designed usually are capable of a wide range of
including the capability to conduct organic, inorganic, and physical
However, small specific lab designs have been developed, in particular
or start-up production facilities. GCI's design solutions meet the
without over designing. Designs incorporate attention to practical and
regulatory safety requirements. Typically laboratories contain
materials and in some cases hazardous equipment therefore safety can
not be a
secondary consideration. The labs are also designed for efficiency of
technicain movement and efficiency of multiple or complicated
All factors from safety to efficiency are included in the design
ensure that resources are not wasted in operation of the lab. The GCI
personnel primarily involved in the design work have had many years of
laboratory experience in positions as technicians, chemists,
managers. In many cases they designed or helped design the laboratories
they worked in.
GCI personnel are also very experienced at specifying and assisting
procurement of the instrumentation and equipment necessary for a lab's
application. Obtaining the right equipment for the task and knowledge
different instrument and equipment available will lead to better
equipment and a better functioning laboratory. Administrative
requirements of a
laboratory must also be factored into design and development. The
amount of analysis data, the need to document the QA/QC, create reports
store the information pose similar but somewhat different challenges to
design and equipping of a lab's administrative function. Again, GCI
have designed and developed laboratory systems which very effectively
these needs into consideration. GCI, when required, designs a lab
administrative area to allow hardware and software to link the analysis
administrative functions such as data storage, QA/QC, and invoicing.
and cost effective solutions are very much a part of GCI's designs.
The following sketch is a simple example of a specific production
designed to analyze incoming shipments of material into a recycling
Also, this lab provides production quality control and quality
testing on the materials during processing, and final product quality
- Performed a comprehensive review of a
proposed update to SW-846.
- Prepared a new Waste Analysis Plan and
QA/QC Plan for a cement plant using both liquid and solid hazardous
- Provides hardware support and
maintenance for in-house state of the art network system including the
networking of the latest 486 and pentium based computer technology,
high-end laser printing, CD-ROM, and optical character and voice
- Designed and set up a new GC/MSD
system for testing organic hazardous waste using the latest available
technology from Hewlett-Packard.
- Assisted in the development of a
"green grass" waste fuel burning facility in the United Kingdom with
special emphasis on appropriate quality control measures, process
monitoring permitting and stack testing.
- Developed a detailed GC-MSD technique
for determining volatile and semivolatile organics in hazardous waste
fuel. The technique is now being used in at least three hazardous waste
- Assisted in the development of
hazardous waste fuel specifications and laboratory testing methods for
a cement kiln using hazardous waste fuel in Australia.
- Performed comprehensive audits of
contractor operated laboratories testing hazardous waste fuel at three
- Assisted in the preparation of an ISO
9000 (British Standard 5750) certification application for a hazardous
waste fuel laboratory in the United Kingdom.
- Developed sample preparation methods
for homogenizing non-homogeneous samples of liquid and solid HWF prior
- Developed and wrote a screening method
for radioactive material contamination of HWF.
- Developed laboratory testing methods
to screen HWF for selected pesticides.
- Developed and wrote a comprehensive
laboratory operations manual for use at multiple HWF testing
- Designed and set up a new laboratory
for HWF testing in Ohio. Subsequently trained the new lab manager to
operate and maintain the lab in accordance with EPA guidelines.
- Developed laboratory operating
procedure that allows for the determination of sub-ppm levels of
mercury in HWF in less than two hours using EPA SW-846 methodology.
- Designed and set up a new laboratory
for HWF testing in Tennessee. This is the first HWF laboratory designed
specifically to comprehensively test solid HWF prior to acceptance and
is the first to use x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to determine metals.
- Assisted client companies in
evaluating technical personnel for positions involved in hazardous
waste operations and laboratories.
- Guided the engineering design of a
bulk liquid HWF facility for a client cement company including tank
farm, truck and rail transfer, and laboratory.
- Developed an additional HWF facility
for Safety-Kleen at a cement plant in South Carolina. This facility has
the largest storage facility capacity of any in the country.
- Developed and managed a "green grass"
HWF facility at the largest cement kiln in the world. This process
included permitting, community relations, facility design,
construction, personnel hiring, training and management, contract
negotiations with the cement manufacturer and training of marketing and
sales personnel. The facility was on line burning HWF within five
months after a decision was made by both companies to pursue the
project. This HWF facility permitted McKesson Envirosystems revenue and
profitability growth to record levels and was one of the key reasons
for Safety-Kleen's acquisition of McKesson Envirosystems.
- Assisted in the development of
McKesson Envirosystems standard analytical procedures, QA/QC program
and health & safety evaluation system.
- Performed a comprehensive systems
analysis at three McKesson Envirosystems solvent recycling/waste fuel
blending facilities to improve efficiency and QA/QC. Negotiated
corporate purchase of laboratory equipment and computers worth $250,000
to standardize plant labs.
- Developed and implemented a new
comprehensive hazardous waste stream qualification program for McKesson
Envirosystems. The system provided a 50% increase in the number of
qualifications and added $500,000 in corporate revenues for
qualification analysis services.
- Designed and set up new laboratories
for HWF facilities in California and Kansas. Trained chemists and
managers for both facilities.
- Developed the first comprehensive and
field tested system for determining the chlorine specification for HWF
used in cement kilns. This system remains proprietary to David Gossman.
The system takes into account a wide variety of parameters including
raw material and current fuel chemistry as well as kiln system design.
- In 1983, provided the initial
design and system specifications for an on-site computerized shipment
receipt and invoicing system at multiple commercial RCRA, TSDFs. The
system provided significant manpower savings and paid for itself with
interest income from faster invoice receipts within one year.
- Developed a complete operations and
safety manual for use at RCRA permitted hazardous waste fuel facilities.
- Developed a comprehensive laboratory
and operations training program for the Paulding, Ohio HWF facility
which has subsequently been used at five additional RCRA permitted
hazardous waste fuel facilities.
- Developed the first comprehensive HWF
specification which met the needs of product (cement) quality,
environmental protection and personal health & safety in 1980.
- Developed the first analytical
methodology for identifying volatile and semi-volatile compounds with
potential health & safety impacts in HWF. Later enhanced this
methodology by utilizing wide bore capillary chromatography and
multiple detector systems.
- Developed the first three tiered
hazardous waste testing program in 1981 including pre-shipment testing,
shipment receipt testing and blended waste testing. By using such a
multi-tiered system, this program was the first to effectively deal
with the QA/QC issue relative to testing at RCRA facilities.
- Developed and published the first high
speed methodology for determining metals in HWF utilizing organic
matrix dilution and direct aspiration into an atomic absorption
- Developed and published the first
analytical methodology to utilize ion chromatography to determine F,
Cl, Br, S, and P in HWF.
- Developed and published the first
analytical methodology specifically designed to determine PCBs in HWF.
The method was eventually expanded to utilize computerized, graphics
based pattern recognition.
- Managed the first commercial hazardous
waste fuel (HWF) blending facility operating at a cement plant. The
facility in Paulding, Ohio was the first of its kind with a complete
on-site laboratory and storage facility operating in full compliance
with RCRA in 1980.
- Designed and set up a commercial soil and water testing laboratory, ChemRightLaboratories, Inc.
GCI has prepared a number of papers relevant to laboratory design
development. (If a link to a paper title is not yet available please
with your fax number for a copy.)
"Quality Control of Hazardous Waste Fuel"
"A Method for the Rapid Semi-Quantitative
Identification of Hazardous Organic Constituents in Liquid Organic
"A Review of the Usefulness of Various ASTM
SW-846 Methods Which May Be Used by the Thermal Treatment Industry"
"The Analysis of Flammable Industrial Wastes
Using Ion Chromatography"
"Data Processing as an Alternative to
Sample Clean up in the Gas Chromatographic Determination of PCBs"
"The Determination of Metals in Paint and
Wastes using Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy"
GCI Tech Notes "Comments on Draft SW-846",
GCI Tech Notes "Hazardous Waste Combustor
Review - Chapter 4 Feedstream
GCI Tech Notes "The “Best” Referenced Methods
Organic Hazardous Waste Analysis”, Nov-95
HWF Notes "Comments on the New EPA Waste
Plan Guidance Manual”, July-94
HWF Notes "Standard Practice for the
Digestion of Industrial Furnace Feedstreams”, Jan-94
HWF Notes "Testing for Pentachlorophenol as a
Screening Procedure to exclude PCDD’s and PCDF’s from Hazardous Waste
HWF Notes “Process Safety Management of
Hazardous Chemicals” and "Comments On Draft Revisions To The Waste
Analysis Plan Guidance Manual", July-93
HWF Notes "TCLP (SW-846 Method 1311 Revision
Nov. 1990) Questions and Answers”, May-93
HWF Notes "Rational for the Use of XRF as a
Screening Method for Controlling and Monitoring BIF Metal
Cement Kiln Process Feeds”, Apr-93
HWF Notes "ISO-9000", Mar-93
HWF Notes "GC Solvents-Safety and Health”,
HWF Notes "PCB Rejection Specification and
at Hazardous Waste Fuel Facilities”, Oct-92
HWF Notes "EPA CKD Sampling Methodology”,
HWF Notes "Method for Screening Radioactivity
"A Model Waste Analysis Plan for Commercial