A Comparison of Metal Emissions From Cement Kilns Utilizing Hazardous Waste Fuels With Commercial Hazardous Waste Incinerators


David Gossman

Gossman Consulting, Inc.

Presented at the Rock Products Conference December, 1993


On May 18, 1993 EPA Administrator, Carol Browner, announced a new hazardous waste reduction and combustion strategy. This strategy suggested that a technology based particulate standard of .015 gr/dscf established for municipal waste combustors could be utilized "to provide a major control on metal emissions" from hazardous waste incinerators and cement kilns using hazardous waste fuel. This, despite existing regulation which established health based standards for cement kilns, but not for incinerators. Clearly a comparison of the amount and nature of metal emissions from cement kilns utilizing hazardous waste fuel (HWF) and hazardous waste incinerators is warranted.

By August 21, 1992 most of the commercial industrial furnaces (BIFs) that utilize HWF had completed the extensive testing required for compliance under new EPA regulations. BIF compliance reports submitted as a result of this testing were obtained from regional EPA offices under the Freedom of Information Act. Trial burn reports for commercial incinerators were also obtained from regional EPA and state offices under the Freedom of Information Act. For each report, only Volume 1, and subsequent selected portions of additional submittals, were requested in order to maintain a manageable data base.


The data base developed contains metal emission data for 33 cement kilns at 24 plants. All cement plants performed emission testing for five to ten or more metals depending on site specific requirements. Of 20 commercial incinerator units at 17 locations, only 13 performed metal emission testing as part of their trial burns. Incinerators also performed testing for five to ten or more metals depending on site specific requirements. Many of the tests for both types of units included metal spiking to produce worst case potential emissions from the systems.

The data compiled is presented as graphs in Figures 1 through 3. Each graph provides the minimum, maximum, and average for each of the ten metals regulated under the EPA Boiler and Industrial Furnace Regulations.


The graph in Figure 1 presents actual emission test results from cement kilns and incinerators respectively. Although average emission rates for most metals may be lower in cement kilns, they are somewhat higher for others. The trend in the data can be deemed insignificant. The graph in Figure 2 presents the same data, but now as emission concentrations corrected to 7% O2. There appears to be a strong trend among most of the metals suggesting lower emission concentrations in cement kilns. This stands to reason since cement kilns by the very nature of their design and operation employ a highly effective means of metal emission control, namely dry sorbent adsorption. This technique of injecting relatively inert fine particulate to act as a medium for volatile metal condensation and capture can be used in a variety of industries that need to capture fume based metal emissions. It should be noted that by virtue of this technique for controlling metal emissions, particulate emissions can increase while simultaneously reducing toxic metal emissions.

The graph in Figure 3 even more dramatically demonstrates this phenomenon. By ratioing the average metal emission rate to the average particulate emission rate for each unit, the concentration (ppm) of each metal in the emitted particulate can be determined. Clearly, the concentration of toxic metals in emitted particulate is one or more orders of magnitude (10 times) less in cement kilns than in commercial incinerators. The actual calculated concentrations for each unit can be found in Tables 1 and 2. It is also interesting to note that among the incinerators, most of the lowest values can be attributed to the Norlite aggregate kiln which has been permitted as an incinerator.


Based on the data presented, it is clear that the use of a single particulate emission standard as a surrogate for toxic metal control is technically unsound, and may be counterproductive. Indeed if a .015 gr/dscf control on cement kilns were established, a control of .0015 gr/dscf ten times lower, would need to be established on commercial incinerators to provide a similar level of protection. The large body of emission data on cement kilns and incinerators now available should be used by EPA to understand the clear differences between cement kilns and incinerators so that regulations can be established that focus on protecting human health and the environment rather than purposely biasing the regulations in favor of one technology or the other.

Emission Rates Minimums - Maximums - Averages

Figure 1

Emission Concentrations Minimums - Maximums - Averages

Figure 2

PPM of Metals in Emitted Particulate Minimums - Maximums - Averages

Figure 3

Table 1. Cement Kiln Concentration of Metals in Emitted Particulate (ppm)












Ash Grove - Chanute, KS #1 1.17E+02 4.09E+01 1.89E+02 7.50E+01 3.17E+03 1.30E+03 1.24E+03 1.30E+03 3.66E+01 1.17E+02
Ash Grove - Chanute, KS #2 1.57E+02 5.86E+01 4.36E+02 1.73E+02 1.10E+04 1.90E+03 1.99E+03 1.14E+03 4.46E+01 1.70E+02
Ash Grove - Foreman, AR #1 3.37E+02 2.66E+01 3.35E+02 1.05E+02 1.40E+02          
Ash Grove - Foreman, AR #2 1.33E+02 4.94E+00 2.88E+02 3.25E+02 1.04E+04          
Ash Grove - Foreman, AR #3 5.42E+02 2.94E+01 1.50E+02 1.62E+02 2.26E+03          
Ash Grove - Louisville, NE #1 3.77E+02 1.21E+01 9.48E+02 9.73E+02 2.56E+04 5.59E+03 1.10E+04 4.81E+02 1.10E+03 4.53E+03
Ash Grove - Louisville, NE #2 9.63E+02 3.39E+01 9.44E+02 1.89E+02 1.37E+04 2.91E+03 2.26E+04 1.69E+02 2.38E+02 1.81E+02
Continental - Hannibal, MO 2.28E+01 1.35E+01 1.44E+03 6.81E+02 6.72E+03 2.68E+00 3.33E+02 2.44E+00 4.88E+00 1.09E+02
ESSROC - Logansport, IN 1.82E+02 1.33E+01 1.36E+02 1.90E+02 1.40E+04 2.31E+02        
Giant - Harleyville, SC #4 1.95E+03 1.95E+02 2.24E+02 1.13E+03 1.95E+03 9.73E+03 4.00E+04 3.30E+02 1.95E+02 9.73E+03
Giant - Harleyville, SC #5 6.09E+02 6.09E+01 1.13E+02 3.05E+02 6.09E+02 3.05E+03 1.06E+04 4.01E+02 6.09E+01 3.05E+03
Heartland - Independence, KS 3.21E+01 5.74E+00 3.04E+02 3.72E+02 1.42E+03 5.46E+01 1.46E+02 3.20E+02 1.05E+01 3.21E+01
Holnam - Clarksville, MO 2.47E+01 1.19E+01 7.61E+02 3.91E+01 7.70E+03 2.60E+01 9.70E+02 3.05E+02 3.13E+01 8.83E+01
Holnam - Holly Hill, SC #1 1.78E+01 2.04E+01 1.10E+03 9.34E+01 1.02E+04 4.71E+01 3.97E+02 2.86E+02 5.47E+00 6.78E+01
Holnam - Holly Hill, SC #2 1.82E+01 1.25E+01 3.95E+02 1.02E+02 4.84E+03 3.38E+01 2.07E+02 3.33E+02 1.45E+01 1.05E+02
Keystone - Bath, PA #1 1.48E+01 1.48E+00 3.76E+03 3.28E+01 3.53E+03 1.48E+01 8.74E+02 3.40E+02 2.52E+01 1.16E+01
Keystone - Bath, PA #2 1.80E+01 1.81E+00 6.59E+02 3.84E+01 1.93E+03 1.89E+01 4.91E+02 5.59E+02 1.14E+01 1.80E+01
Kosmos - Louisville, KY 1.32E+02 1.32E+01 1.32E+03 2.63E+03 2.63E+03          
Lafarge - Alpena, MI 9.00E+01 3.67E+01 1.22E+02 2.37E+02 3.31E+02          
Lafarge - Demopolis, AL 3.79E+01 6.83E+00 5.31E+01 1.97E+02 1.30E+03          
Lafarge - Fredonia, KS #1 1.93E+02 6.64E+00 3.17E+02 2.93E+02 3.73E+03          
Lafarge - Fredonia, KS #2 4.01E+02 1.88E+01 1.03E+03 6.71E+02 1.70E+04          
Lafarge - Paulding, OH 5.16E+01 6.31E+00 1.44E+03 2.24E+02 2.09E+04          
LSI - Cape Girardeau, MO 5.13E+01 2.46E+00 8.14E+01 3.48E+02 3.99E+02 9.30E+00 1.94E+03 9.30E+02 2.77E+00 2.32E+01
LSI - Greencastle, IN 1.99E+01 5.45E+00 8.69E+02 3.94E+02 3.71E+03 1.58E+01 9.35E+01 3.19E+02 3.10E+02 1.09E+01
Medusa - Wampum, PA #1 & #2 2.65E+01 3.30E+00 1.32E+01 1.04E+00 5.29E+03 6.63E+01 2.28E+02 2.97E+01    
Medusa - Wampum, PA #3 4.28E+01 5.32E+00 2.14E+01 1.43E+02 1.42E+04 1.07E+02 2.93E+02 1.10E+03    
National - Lebec, CA 1.17E+02 4.79E+00 7.45E+01 1.12E+02 4.09E+02 1.54E+02 6.86E+02 8.79E+04 1.97E+02 1.49E+02
North Texas - Midlothian, TX 3.68E+01 6.20E+00 3.41E+02 3.67E+02 5.76E+03          
River - Festus, MO 1.82E+01 1.00E+01 2.23E+02 1.16E+02 1.01E+04 3.23E+01 7.37E+02 8.16E+02 2.50E+01 2.77E+01
SD - Fairborn, OH 9.36E+01 9.07E+00 9.07E+02 1.81E+03 2.52E+03          
SD - Knoxville, TN 2.73E+01 8.27E+00 4.42E+01 3.24E+02 2.05E+02          
Texas Industries - Midlothian, TX 3.27E+01 1.64E+02 2.56E+02 1.68E+02 5.63E+03 4.60E+01 5.68E+03 5.73E+03 1.10E+01 5.85E+01
Minimum 1.48E+01 1.48E+00 1.32E+01 1.04E+00 1.40E+02 2.68E+00 9.35E+01 2.44E+00 2.77E+00 1.09E+01
Maximum 1.95E+03 1.95E+02 3.76E+03 2.63E+03 2.56E+04 9.73E+03 4.00E+04 8.79E+04 1.10E+03 9.73E+03
Average 2.09E+02 2.57E+01 5.85E+02 3.95E+02 6.47E+03 1.21E+03 5.03E+03 5.14E+03 1.29E+02 1.03E+03
Standard Deviation 3.72E+02 4.19E+01 7.08E+02 5.37E+02 6.34E+03 2.38E+03 9.71E+03 1.90E+04 2.53E+02 2.42E+03

Table 2. Incinerator Concentration of Metals in Emitted Particulate (ppm)












APTUS - Coffeyville, KS 6.44E+03 3.25E+04 9.07E+04 1.79E+05 2.02E+05 4.29E+03 3.26E+05 1.42E+05 1.25E+04 4.07E+03
APTUS - Aragonite, UT 1.85E+03 2.49E+02 2.73E+02 1.01E+04 9.16E+03 2.57E+03 5.11E+03 5.21E+05 1.02E+03 4.28E+03
Chem Waste Mgmt. - Chicago, IL 2.23E+03 7.14E+00 3.81E+03 3.39E+03 2.78E+04 9.66E+03 4.67E+02 1.51E+03 9.99E+01 6.82E+02
Chem Waste Mgmt. - Port Arthur, TX 1.57E+03 3.66E+01 3.76E+02 1.03E+03 8.61E+03     8.45E+02    
ENSCO - El Dorado, AR Did not test for metals.
Laidlaw - Roebuck, SC 1.66E+02 2.03E+01 1.27E+03 5.70E+03 3.83E+03 5.35E+03 1.53E+04 1.52E+03 1.36E+03 6.98E+03
LDW - Calvert City, KY #1 Did not test for metals.
LDW - Calvert City, KY #2 Did not test for metals.
LDW - Calvert City, KY #3 Did not test for metals.
Norlite - Cohoes, NY 6.76E+01 1.00E+01 2.03E+02 5.85E+03 9.06E+01 3.36E+02 1.05E+02 2.20E+04 3.56E+01 2.31E+01
Rhone Poulenc - Houston, TX 3.24E+04 1.98E+02 1.88E+03 1.98E+03 7.23E+03 9.41E+03 1.09E+03 6.93E+01 5.94E+02 1.12E+05
Rhone Poulenc - Baton Rouge, LA #1 Did not test for metals.
Rhone Poulenc - Baton Rouge, LA #2 Did not test for metals.
Rollins - Bridgeport, NJ 3.65E+01 1.46E+02 1.24E+03 9.14E+02 1.78E+04 1.76E+03 5.86E+03 6.22E+00 2.93E+02 5.32E+01
Rollins - Baton Rouge, LA 1.02E+02   1.56E+04 6.05E+02 6.74E+03 1.23E+02 5.64E+02 3.41E+02 1.74E+01  
Rollins - Deer Park, TX 9.49E+01 3.16E+00 4.16E+03 4.11E+02 4.00E+03     7.11E+02    
ROSS - Grafton, OH 6.10E+03   3.34E+04 1.18E+04 3.00E+05 2.08E+04        
Thermalkem - Rock Hill, SC 1.69E+02 9.93E+01 4.47E+03 3.03E+03 2.93E+05 1.59E+03   3.47E+00 6.45E+01 1.09E+02
Trade Waste - Sauget, IL Did not test for metals.
Waste Tech - East Liverpool, OH 1.23E+03 4.14E+01 2.23E+03 1.72E+03 1.39E+04 1.81E+03   2.70E+06    
Minimum 3.65E+01 9.93E+01 2.03E+02 4.11E+02 9.06E+01 1.23E+02 1.05E+02 3.47E+00 1.74E+01 2.31E+01
Maximum 3.24E+04 3.25E+04 9.07E+04 1.79E+05 3.00E+05 2.08E+04 3.26E+05 2.70E+06 1.25E+04 1.12E+05
Average 4.03E+03 3.02E+03 1.23E+04 1.74E+04 6.88E+04 5.25E+03 4.44E+04 2.82E+05 1.77E+03 1.60E+04
Standard Deviation 8.45E+03 9.34E+03 2.43E+04 4.69E+04 1.10E+05 5.84E+03 1.07E+05 7.42E+05 3.81E+03 3.62E+04


Gossman, David, Commercial BIF Compliance Test Results - 1992, Hampshire, Gossman Consulting, Inc., 1992.

Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration, Code of Federal Regulations, Washington, 1992, Part 260-270.

Woods, Robin, "EPA Administrator Browner Announces New Hazardous Waste Reduction and Combustion Strategy", Environmental News, May 18, 1993, R-114.

Incinerator Trial Burn Reports For -

Aptus, Inc.

Chemical Waste Management Inc.


Laidlaw Environmental Services Inc.

LDW, Inc.

Norlite Corporation

Rhone-Poulenc Basic Chemicals

Rollins Environmental Services Inc.

Ross Incineration Services Inc.


Trade Waste Incineration

Waste Technologies Industries

Cement Kiln Trial Burn/BIF COC Reports For:

Ash Grove Cement Co.

Continental Cement Co.

Essroc Materials, Inc.

Giant Cement Co.

Heartland Cement Co

Holnam Inc.

Keystone Cement Co.

Kosmos Cement Co.

Lafarge Corp.

Lone Star Industries

Medusa Cement Co,

National Cement Co.

North Texas Cement

River Cement Co.

Southdown Inc.

Texas Industries

Solite Corp.

Marine Shale Processors, Inc.