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Gossman Consulting, Inc.

2,3,7,8-TCDD Equivalent Emissions from Cement Kilns Burning Hazardous Waste


 
Robert J. Schreiber, Jr., P.E.
Schreiber, Grana & Yonley, Inc.
271 Wolfner Drive
St. Louis, Missouri 63026
David Gossman
Gossman Consulting, Inc.
45W962 Plank Road
Hampshire, Illinois 60140

 


Presented at the AWMA International Specialty Conference on Waste Combustion in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces April, 1994

ABSTRACT

Effective August 21, 1991 the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) adopted the Boiler and Industrial Furnace (BIF) rules which govern cement kiln operations burning hazardous waste fuel and set limits on cement kiln emissions of metals, HCL/chlorine and organics.

Dioxin testing was required to address the concerns of the USEPA arising from the review of stack test data from municipal waste combustion units. Dioxin emissions tests were developed and designed to meet EPA criteria under worst-case conditions and performed at 15 cement plants. Upon compilation of this data, an evaluation was performed for a correlation between HCl and Cl2 emissions and dioxin emissions. When no correlation was found, additional data analysis revealed a trend between the kiln exit temperature and dioxin emissions.

Additional data was gathered from selected cement plants and the available individual run data was plotted against temperatures at APCD device inlets. The dioxin emissions show a decrease in concentration as a function of decreasing temperature. This corresponds with EPA's concerns about dioxin emissions increasing as a function of stack or APCD temperatures.

In conclusion, temperature seems to be a primary factor for dioxin formation. If temperatures can be controlled below 400oF, there may be a reduction in dioxin emissions from cement kilns whether or not they burn hazardous waste fuels.
 

INTRODUCTION

Effective August 21, 1991 the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) adopted the Boiler and Industrial Furnace (BIF) rules which govern cement kiln operations burning hazardous waste as fuel. BIF set limits on cement kiln emissions of metals, chloride and organics. Testing was required by August 21, 1992, and if, during the course of testing, the air pollution control device (APCD) in use at the cement kiln recorded temperatures between 450oF and 750oF, then dioxin emission testing was necessary. The dioxin testing was mandated due to a lack of data available from cement kilns for these emissions and USEPA concerns arising in the review of stack test data from municipal waste combustion units.

Approximately fifteen dioxin emissions tests were performed at cement plants. Many of the emissions tests were developed to meet EPA criteria and were designed to be under worst case conditions. A worst case scenario would be defined as maximum waste fuel being burned with the highest allowable chlorine content in addition to the maximum temperature that would be encountered in the APCD. Table 1 lists the results of the emissions tests.

Upon compilation of this data, an evaluation was performed for a correlation between HCl and Cl2 emissions and dioxin emissions. Wide variation in the HCl and Cl2 emissions was observed. No correlation could be obtained between chlorine and dioxin emissions. However, a trend was observed between the kiln exit temperature and dioxin emissions. Higher temperatures were associated with the higher dioxin emissions.

The database was sorted by descending temperatures (Table 2.) and corrected to 7% oxygen. Subsequent to the sort, the data was plotted (Plot 1). The dioxin emissions appear as a function of stack exit temperature. The dioxin emissions show a corresponding decrease in concentration as a function of temperature when it drops below approximately 585oF with significant dioxin emissions occurring at temperatures in the 600oF to 750oF range. This corresponds with EPA's concerns about dioxin emissions increasing as a function of stack or APCD temperature increase. Subsequent to this finding, we chose one plant in the U.S. that had eleven tests performed under varying conditions yielding results exhibiting a range of temperatures vs. dioxin emissions. Table 3 outlines the results for that particular test facility. The corresponding dioxin emissions are presented for those emissions tests, during which a similar type of curve is observed (Plot 2). Higher dioxin emissions occur during the higher temperatures (greater than 450oF and increasing to 495oF) with a significant decrease in dioxin emissions occurring below 420oF.
 

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, temperature seems to be a contributing factor to dioxin formation. The lower temperature in the APCD may result in lower dioxin emissions being formed with subsequent lower emissions exiting the stack. However, it was noted that hydrocarbon content, alkali content and chlorine loading may also be contributing factors in addition to temperature and need to be investigated further. If temperatures can be controlled below 450oF, there may be a reduction in dioxin emissions both from cement kilns burning and not burning hazardous waste fuels.
 
 
Table 1. Cement kiln dioxin data and corrected values for 7% Oxygen.
NAME
KILN#
DATE
RUN#
TOTAL
TEQ
TOTAL
NGDSCM
EXIT
TEMP
STACK
TEMP
O2
FLOW RATE
(dscmm)
TEMP
USED
TEQ at
7% 02
TOTAL
DIOXIN
at 7% 02
LOG TEQ
7% 02
LOG 
TEMP
ASH GROVE
1
4/92
1
3.22e-01
6.85e+01
422
---
10.8
2229
422
4.420e-01
9.402e+01
-3.55e-01
2.63e+00
Chanute    
2
1.31e+00
1.42e+02
439
---
10.4
2260
439
1.730e+00
1.875e+02
2.38e-01
2.64e+00
     
3
1.50e+00
1.38e+02
435
---
10.7
2255
435
2.039e+00
1.876e+02
3.09e-01
2.64e+00
     
4
5.01e+00
2.54e+02
448
---
10.7
2199
448
6.810e+00
3.452e+02
8.33e-01
2.65e+00
ASH GROVE
2
11/92
1
3.42e-01
2.06e+01
392
---
13
4489
392
5.985e-01
3.605e+01
-2.23e-01
2.59e+00
Chanute    
2
1.67e-01
7.72e+00
340
---
10
4365
340
2.125e-01
9.825e+00
-6.73e-01
2.53e+00
     
3
3.10e-01
1.39e+01
369
---
11.7
4192
369
4.667e-01
2.092e+01
-3.31e-01
2.57e+00
ASH GROVE
1
7/92
1
5.58e-01
8.63e+01
487
---
8
1558
487
6.009e-01
9.294e+01
-2.21e-01
2.69e+00
Foreman    
2
1.39e+01
1.04e+03
495
---
8
1671
495
1.497e+01
1.120e+03
1.18e+00
2.69e+00
     
3
1.73e+00
3.01e+02
503
---
8.8
1707
503
1.985e+00
3.454e+02
2.98e-01
2.70e+00
     
4
6.63e-01
1.92e+02
490
---
7.7
1794
490
6.979e-01
2.021e+02
-1.56e-01
2.69e+00
ASH GROVE
2
1/92
1
5.61e-01
6.12e+01
492
---
6.7
2023
492
5.492e-01
5.992e+01
-2.60e-01
2.69e+00
Foreman    
2
2.07e-01
1.46e+01
462
---
7.4
2086
462
2.131e-01
1.503e+01
-6.71e-01
2.66e+00
     
3
3.02e-01
2.12e+01
481
---
7.6
2021
481
3.155e-01
2.215e+01
-5.01e-01
2.68e+00
 
3
7/92
1
1.26e+02
9.62e+00
487
---
5.2
2508
487
1.116e+02
8.524e+00
2.05e+00
2.69e+00
     
2
9.34e-01
4.84e+00
474
---
6
2482
474
8.717e-01
4.517e+00
-5.96e-02
2.68e+00
     
3
6.56e-01
3.63e+00
474
---
5.7
2481
474
6.003e-01
3.322e+00
-2.22e-01
2.68e+00
ASH GROVE
2
5/92
1
2.99e-01
8.72e+00
356/722
380
10.5
2777
380
3.987e-01
1.163e+01
-3.99e-01
2.58e+00
Louisville    
2
3.26e-01
6.43e+00
355/722
386
9.8
2808
386
4.075e-01
8.038e+00
-3.90e-01
2.59e+00
     
3
9.50e-01
2.06e+00
356/756
379
10.7
2696
379
1.291e+00
2.800e+00
1.11e-01
2.58e+00
     
4
4.38e-01
1.37e+01
356/746
381
11.1
2732
381
6.194e-01
1.937e+01
-2.08e-01
2.58e+00
CONTINENTAL  
5/92
1
3.10e+01
1.66e+03
597.22
597.22
4
3785
597
2.553e+01
1.367e+03
1.41e+00
2.78e+00
Hannibal    
2
1.59e+01
1.05e+03
603.85
603.85
5.6
3657
604
1.445e+01
9.545e+02
1.16e+00
2.78e+00
     
3
1.37e+01
1.55e+03
---
---
4.4
3762
600
1.155e+01
1.307e+03
1.06e+00
2.78e+00
ESSROC  
5/92
1
4.22e+00

---
334
7.24
2373
334
4.294e+00
 
6.33e-01
2.52e+00
Logansport    
2
7.89e+00

---
326
7.71
2514
326
8.312e+00
 
9.20e-01
2.51e+00
     
3
7.43e+00

---
336
7.7
2526
336
7.821e+00
 
8.93e-01
2.53e+00
HOLNAM  
4/92
1
3.33e-02
---
596.72
493.8
4.4
7126
586
2.808e-02
 
-1.55e+00
2.77e+00
Clarksville    
2
5.25e-02
---
596.39
501.3
4.4
7231
596
4.428e-02
 
-1.35e+00
2.78e+00
     
3
5.66e-01
---
598.95
508.6
4.4
7329
598
4.773e-01
 
-3.21e-01
2.78e+00
HOLNAM
1
7/92
1
1.13e-01
3.82e+01
---
362.5
10.1
3533
362
1.451e-01
4.906e+01
-8.38e-01
2.56e+00
Holly Hill    
2
1.40e-01
8.36e+01
---
371.3
10.1
3271
371
1.798e-01
1.074e+02
-7.45e-01
2.57e+00
     
3
3.02e-01
3.46e+02
---
373.4
10.1
3331
373
3.879e-01
4.444e+02
-4.11e-01
2.57e+00
 
1-BL
7/92
1
1.90e-02
6.29e+01
---
363.5
10.3
3495
363
2.486e-02
8.230e+01
-1.60e+00
2.56e+00
     
2
9.85e-03
1.69e+02
---
370.8
10.3
3496
370
1.289e-02
2.211e+02
-1.89e+00
2.57e+00
     
3
2.64e-02
1.45e+02
---
366.4
10.3
3332
366
3.454e-02
1.897e+02
-1.46e+00
2.56e+00
 
2
7/92
1
1.09e+00
8.36e+00
---
488.3
7
3946
488
1.090e+00
8.360e+00
3.74e-02
2.69e+00
     
2
1.49e+00
4.58e+00
---
485.2
7
3965
485
1.490e+00
4.580e+00
1.73e-01
2.69e+00
     
3
1.88e+00
3.98e+00
---
495.8
7.02
3856
495
1.883e+00
3.986e+00
2.75e-01
2.69e+00
 
2-BL
7/92
1
1.55e-02
---
---
420.1
7
3953
420
1.550e-02
 
-1.81e+00
2.62e+00
     
2
5.86e-03
3.26e+02
---
415.6
7
3668
415
5.860e-03
3.260e+02
-2.23e+00
2.62e+00
KOSMOS CEMENT
COND 2
5/92
1
1.16e+00
---
---
310
14.9
7549
310
2.662e+00
 
4.25e-01
2.49e+00
     
2
1.06e+00
---
---
323
14.6
7416
323
2.319e+00
 
3.65e-01
2.51e+00
     
3
1.16e+00
---
---
314
14.6
7297
314
2.538e+00
 
4.04e-01
2.50e+00
     
4
1.32e+00
---
---
320
15.4
8195
320
3.300e+00
 
5.19e-01
2.51e+00
LAFARGE  
6/92
1
7.49e-02
---
511.2
360
11
9346
512
1.049e-01
 
-9.79e-01
2.71e+00
Alpena    
2
5.23e-02
---
508.5
365
11
8927
508
7.322e-02
 
-1.14e+00
2.71e+00
     
3
1.22e-01
---
499.6
366
11
9575
499
1.708e-01
 
-7.68e-01
2.70e+00
LAFARGE
1
5/92
1
5.94e+00
---
544
441
5.5
1167
544
5.365e+00
 
7.30e-01
2.74e+00
Fredonia    
2
2.65e+00
---
539
440
5.5
1192
539
2.394e+00
 
3.79e-01
2.73e+00
     
3
2.72e+00
---
552
437
5.5
1161
552
2.457e+00
 
3.90e-01
2.74e+00
 
2
5/92
1
3.62e+00
---
493
449
5.6
1382
493
3.291e+00
 
5.17e-01
2.69e+00
     
2
9.39e+00
---
545
468
5.6
1367
545
8.536e+00
 
9.31e-01
2.74e+00
     
3
2.51e+00
---
500
463
5.6
1450
500
2.282e+00
 
3.58e-01
2.70e+00
LONESTAR  
5/92
1
3.18e+00
6.59e+02
536.06
464.96
5.4
3407
536
2.854e+00
5.914e+02
4.55e-01
2.73e+00
Greencastle    
2
3.45e+00
7.70e+02
521.95
457.46
5.4
3518
521
3.096e+00
6.910e+02
4.91e-01
2.72e+00
     
3
4.24e+00
8.39e+02
523.28
456.36
5.4
3564
523
3.805e+00
7.529e+02
5.80e-01
2.72e+00
MEDUSA
1
6/92
1
2.99e+01
---
---
466
11.1
2926
466
4.228e+01
 
1.63e+00
2.67e+00
Wampum    
2
6.17e+01
---
---
456
11.3
2957
456
8.905e+01
 
1.95e+00
2.66e+00
     
3
5.51e+01
---
---
477
11.1
2912
477
7.792e+01
 
1.89e+00
2.68e+00
N. TEXAS CEM.
COND 1
6/92
1
1.38e-02
---
415
320
7.6
1903
415
1.442e-02
 
-1.84e+00
2.62e+00
     
2
1.98e-02
---
438
338
7.4
2104
438
2.038e-02
 
-1.69e+00
2.64e+00
     
3
2.08e-02
---
434
342
7.5
2042
434
2.157e-02
 
-1.67e+00
2.64e+00
N. TEXAS CEM.
COND 2
6/92
1
8.40e-02
---
459
358
7.4
1924
459
8.647e-02
 
-1.06e+00
2.66e+00
     
2
3.02e-01
---
481
374
7.4
1990
481
3.109e-01
 
-5.07e-01
2.68e+00
     
3
1.17e-01
---
442
346
7.4
1890
442
1.204e-01
 
-9.19e-01
2.65e+00
RIVER CEMENT  
6/92
1
5.21e+01
2.13e+03
---
479
10.1
8383
479
6.692e+01
2.736e+03
1.83e+00
2.68e+00
Festus    
2
5.73e+01
2.30e+03
---
483
10.1
8251
483
7.360e+01
2.954e+03
1.87e+00
2.68e+00
     
3
4.02e+01
1.60e+03
---
479
10.1
8406
479
5.163e+01
2.055e+03
1.71e+00
2.68e+00
SOUTHDOWN
COND 1
6/92
1
4.54e-02
---
---
271
10.8
3245
271
6.231e-02
 
-1.21e+00
2.43e+00
Fairborn    
2
6.65e-02
---
---
294
11.1
3164
294
9.404e-02
 
-1.03e+00
2.47e+00
     
3
2.88e-02
---
---
275
11.0
3189
275
4.032e-02
 
-1.39e+00
2.44e+00
SOUTHDOWN
COND 2
6/92
1
1.25e-01
---
---
342
17.9
1733
342
5.645e-01
 
-2.48e-01
2.53e+00
Fairborn    
2
4.79e-01
---
---
342
18.1
1670
342
2.312e+00
 
3.64e-01
2.53e+00
     
3
2.03e-01
---
---
353
17.7
1732
353
8.612e-01
 
-6.49e-02
2.55e+00
SOUTHDOWN
COND 1
3/92
1
1.04e-01
---
---
427
12.4
3997
427
1.693e-01
 
-7.71e-01
2.63e+00
Dixie    
2
1.54e+00
---
---
423
12
3998
423
2.396e+00
 
3.79e-01
2.63e+00
     
3
1.32e+00
---
---
408
12
3889
408
2.053e+00
 
3.12e-01
2.61e+00
SOUTHDOWN
COND 2
3/92
1
7.42e-02
---
---
410
11.7
3835
410
1.117e-01
 
-9.52e-01
2.61e+00
Dixie    
2
3.20e-02
---
---
399
12.6
4141
399
5.333e-02
 
-1.27e+00
2.60e+00
     
3
3.34e-02
---
---
395
12.4
4074
395
5.437e-02
 
-1.26e+00
2.60e+00

 
 
 
Table 2. Cement kiln dioxin data - temperatures sorted by descending value.
NAME
KILN#
DATE
RUN#
TOTAL
TEQ
TOTAL
NGD SCM
EXIT
TEMP
STACK TEMP
O2
FLOW RATE
(dscmm)
TEMP
USED
TEQ at
7% O2
TOTAL DIOXIN
at 7% 02
LOG TEQ
7% 02
LOG 
TEMP
CCC-HANNIBAL
 

 

2
1.59e+01
1.05e+03
603.85
603.85
5.6
3657
604
1.445e+01
9.545e+02
1.160e+00
2.781e+00
CCC-HANNIBAL    
3
1.37e+01
1.55e+03
---
---
4.4
3762
600
1.155e+01
1.307e+03
1.063e+00
2.778e+00
HOLNAM-CLARKSVILLE    
3
5.66e-01
---
598.954
508.6
4.4
7329
598
4.773e-01
 
-3.212e-01
2.777e+00
CCC-HANNIBAL  
5/92
1
3.10e+01
1.66e+03
597.215
597.215
4
3785
597
2.553e+01
1.367e+03
1.407e+00
2.776e+00
HOLNAM-CLARKSVILLE    
2
5.25e-02
---
596.393
501.3
4.4
7231
596
4.428e-02
 
-1.354e+00
2.775e+00
HOLNAM-CLARKSVILLE  
4/92
1
3.33e-02
---
596.719
493.8
4.4
7126
586
2.808e-02
 
-1.552e+00
2.768e+00
LAFARGE-FRDNIA    
3
2.72e+00
---
552
437
5.5
1161
552
2.457e+00
 
3.904e-01
2.742e+00
LAFARGE-FRDNIA    
2
9.39e+00
---
545
468
5.6
1367
545
8.536e+00
 
9.313e-01
2.736e+00
LAFARGE-FRDNIA
1
5/92
1
5.94e+00
---
544
441
5.5
1167
544
5.365e+00
 
7.296e-01
2.736e+00
LAFARGE-FRDNIA    
2
2.65e+00
---
539
440
5.5
1192
539
2.394e+00
 
3.790e-01
2.732e+00
LONESTAR-GREENCSTL  
5/92
1
3.18e+00
6.59e+02
536.06
464.96
5.4
3407
536
2.854e+00
5.914e+02
4.554e-01
2.729e+00
LONESTAR-GREENCSTL    
3
4.24e+00
8.39e+02
523.283
456.36
5.4
3564
523
3.805e+00
7.529e+02
5.804e-01
2.719e+00
LONESTAR-GREENCSTL    
2
3.45e+00
7.70e+02
521.95
457.46
5.4
3518
521
3.096e+00
6.910e+02
4.908e-01
2.717e+00
LAFARGE-ALPENA  
6/92
1
7.49e-02
---
511.2
360
11
9346
512
1.049e-01
 
-9.794e-01
2.709e+00
LAFARGE-ALPENA    
2
5.23e-02
---
508.5
365
11
8927
508
7.322e-02
 
-1.135e+00
2.706e+00
ASHG-FOREMAN    
3
1.73e+00
3.01e+02
503
---
8.8
1707
503
1.985e+00
3.454e+02
2.978e-01
2.702e+00
LAFARGE-FRDNIA    
3
2.51e+00
---
500
463
5.6
1450
500
2.282e+00
 
3.583e-01
2.699e+00
LAFARGE-ALPENA    
3
1.22e-01
---
499.6
366
11
9575
499
1.708e-01
 
-7.675e-01
2.698e+00
ASHG-FOREMAN    
2
1.39e+01
1.04e+03
495
---
8
1671
495
1.497e+01
1.120e+03
1.175e+00
2.695e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
3
1.88e+00
3.98e+00
---
495.8
7.02
3856
495
1.883e+00
3.986e+00
2.748e-01
2.695e+00
LAFARGE-FRDNIA
2
5/92
1
3.62e+00
---
493
449
5.6
1382
493
3.291e+00
 
5.173e-01
2.693e+00
ASHG-FOREMAN
2
1/92
1
5.61e-01
6.12e+01
492
---
6.7
2023
492
5.492e-01
5.992e+01
-2.602e-01
2.692e+00
ASHG-FOREMAN    
4
6.63e-01
1.92e+02
490
---
7.7
1794
490
6.979e-01
2.021e+02
-1.562e-01
2.690e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL
2
7/92
1
1.09e+00
8.36e+00
---
488.3
7
3946
488
1.090e+00
8.360e+00
3.743e-02
2.688e+00
ASHG-FOREMAN
3
7/92
1
1.26e+02
9.62e+00
487
---
5.2
2508
487
1.116e+02
8.524e+00
2.048e+00
2.688e+00
ASHG-FOREMAN
1
7/92
1
5.58e-01
8.63e+01
487
---
8
1558
487
6.009e-01
9.294e+01
-2.212e-01
2.688e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
2
1.49e+00
4.58e+00
---
485.2
7
3965
485
1.490e+00
4.580e+00
1.732e-01
2.686e+00
RIVER CEMENT-FESTUS    
2
5.73e+01
2.30e+03
---
483
10.1
8251
483
7.360e+01
2.954e+03
1.867e+00
2.684e+00
ASHG-FOREMAN    
3
3.02e-01
2.12e+01
481
---
7.6
2021
481
3.155e-01
2.215e+01
-5.010e-01
2.682e+00
N. TEXAS CEMENT
COND 2
 
2
3.02e-01
---
481
374
7.4
1990
481
3.109e-01
 
-5.074e-01
2.682e+00
RIVER CEMENT-FESTUS  
6/92
1
5.21e+01
2.13e+03
---
479
10.1
8383
479
6.692e+01
2.736e+03
1.826e+00
2.680e+00
RIVER CEMENT-FESTUS    
3
4.02e+01
1.60e+03
---
479
10.1
8406
479
5.163e+01
2.055e+03
1.713e+00
2.680e+00
MEDUSA-WAMPUM    
3
5.51e+01
---
---
477
11.1
2912
477
7.792e+01
 
1.892e+00
2.679e+00
ASHG-FOREMAN    
2
9.34e-01
4.84e+00
474
---
6
2482
474
8.717e-01
4.517e+00
-5.962e-02
2.676e+00
ASHG-FOREMAN    
3
6.56e-01
3.63e+00
474
---
5.7
2481
474
6.003e-01
3.322e+00
-2.217e-01
2.676e+00
MEDUSA-WAMPUM
1
6/92
1
2.99e+01
---
---
466
11.1
2926
466
4.228e+01
 
1.626e+00
2.668e+00
ASHG-FOREMAN    
2
2.07e-01
1.46e+01
462
---
7.4
2086
462
2.131e-01
1.503e+01
-6.714e-01
2.665e+00
N. TEXAS CEMENT
COND 2
6/92
1
8.40e-02
---
459
358
7.4
1924
459
8.647e-02
 
-1.063e+00
2.662e+00
MEDUSA-WAMPUM    
2
6.17e+01
---
---
456
11.3
2957
456
8.905e+01
 
1.950e+00
2.659e+00
ASHG-CHANUTE    
4
5.01e+00
2.54e+02
448
---
10.7
2199
448
6.810e+00
3.452e+02
8.331e-01
2.651e+00
N. TEXAS CEMENT
COND 2
 
3
1.17e-01
---
442
346
7.4
1890
442
1.204e-01
 
-9.192e-01
2.645e+00
ASHG-CHANUTE    
2
1.31e+00
1.42e+02
439
---
10.4
2260
439
1.730e+00
1.875e+02
2.381e-01
2.642e+00
N. TEXAS CEMENT
COND 1
 
2
1.98e-02
---
438
338
7.4
2104
438
2.038e-02
 
-1.691e+00
2.641e+00
ASHG-CHANUTE    
3
1.50e+00
1.38e+02
435
---
10.7
2255
435
2.039e+00
1.876e+02
3.094e-01
2.638e+00
N. TEXAS CEMENT
COND 1
 
3
2.08e-02
---
434
342
7.5
2042
434
2.157e-02
 
-1.666e+00
2.637e+00
STHDOWN-DIXIE
COND 1
3/92
1
1.04e-01
---
---
427
12.4
3997
427
1.693e-01
 
-7.713e-01
2.630e+00
STHDOWN-DIXIE
COND 1
 
2
1.54e+00
---
---
423
12
3998
423
2.396e+00
 
3.794e-01
2.626e+00
ASHG-CHANUTE
1
4/92
1
3.22e-01
6.85e+01
422
---
10.8
2229
422
4.420e-01
9.402e+01
-3.546e-01
2.625e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL
2-BL
7/92
1
1.55e-02
---
---
420.1
7
3953
420
1.550e-02
 
-1.810e+00
2.623e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
2
5.86e-03
3.26e+02
---
415.6
7
3668
415
5.860e-03
3.260e+02
-2.232e+00
2.618e+00
N. TEXAS CEMENT
COND 1
6/92
1
1.38e-02
---
415
320
7.6
1903
415
1.442e-02
 
-1.841e+00
2.618e+00
STHDOWN-DIXIE
COND 2
3/92
1
7.42e-02
---
---
410
11.7
3835
410
1.117e-01
 
-9.520e-01
2.613e+00
STHDOWN-DIXIE
COND 1
 
3
1.32e+00
---
---
408
12
3889
408
2.053e+00
 
3.125e-01
2.611e+00
STHDOWN-DIXIE
COND 2
 
2
3.20e-02
---
---
399
12.6
4141
399
5.333e-02
 
-1.273e+00
2.601e+00
STHDOWN-DIXIE
COND 2
 
3
3.34e-02
---
---
395
12.4
4074
395
5.437e-02
 
-1.265e+00
2.597e+00
ASHG-CHANUTE
2
11/92
1
3.42e-01
2.06e+01
392
---
13
4489
392
5.985e-01
3.605e+01
-2.229e-01
2.593e+00
ASHG-LOUISVILLE    
2
3.26e-01
6.43e+00
355/722
386
9.8
2808
386
4.075e-01
8.038e+00
-3.899e-01
2.587e+00
ASHG-LOUISVILLE    
4
4.38e-01
1.37e+01
356/746
381
11.1
2732
381
6.194e-01
1.937e+01
-2.080e-01
2.581e+00
ASHG-LOUISVILLE
2
5/92
1
2.99e-01
8.72e+00
356/722
380
10.5
2777
380
3.987e-01
1.163e+01
-3.994e-01
2.580e+00
ASHG-LOUISVILLE    
3
9.50e-01
2.06e+00
356/756
379
10.7
2696
379
1.291e+00
2.800e+00
1.110e-01
2.579e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
3
3.02e-01
3.46e+02
---
373.4
10.1
3331
373
3.879e-01
4.444e+02
-4.113e-01
2.572e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
2
1.40e-01
8.36e+01
---
371.3
10.1
3271
371
1.798e-01
1.074e+02
-7.452e-01
2.569e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
2
9.85e-03
1.69e+02
---
370.8
10.3
3496
370
1.289e-02
2.211e+02
-1.890e+00
2.568e+00
ASHG-CHANUTE    
3
3.10e-01
1.39e+01
369
---
11.7
4192
369
4.667e-01
2.092e+01
-3.310e-01
2.567e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
3
2.64e-02
1.45e+02
---
366.4
10.3
3332
366
3.454e-02
1.897e+02
-1.462e+00
2.563e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL
1-BL
7/92
1
1.90e-02
6.29e+01
---
363.5
10.3
3495
363
2.486e-02
8.230e+01
-1.605e+00
2.560e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL
1
7/92
1
1.13e-01
3.82e+01
---
362.5
10.1
3533
362
1.451e-01
4.906e+01
-8.382e-01
2.559e+00
STHDOWN-FRBRN
COND 2
 
3
2.03e-01
---
---
353
17.7
1732
353
8.612e-01
 
-6.489e-02
2.548e+00
STHDOWN-FRBRN
COND 2
6/92
1
1.25e-01
---
---
342
17.9
1733
342
5.645e-01
 
-2.483e-01
2.534e+00
STHDOWN-FRBRN
COND 2
 
2
4.79e-01
---
---
342
18.1
1670
342
2.312e+00
 
3.641e-01
2.534e+00
ASHG-CHANUTE    
2
1.67e-01
7.72e+00
340
---
10
4365
340
2.125e-01
9.825e+00
-6.725e-01
2.531e+00
ESSROC-LOGANSPORT    
3
7.43e+00

---
336
7.7
2526
336
7.821e+00
 
8.933e-01
2.526e+00
ESSROC-LOGANSPORT  
5/92
1
4.22e+00

---
334
7.24
2373
334
4.294e+00
 
6.328e-01
2.524e+00
ESSROC-LOGANSPORT    
2
7.89e+00

---
326
7.71
2514
326
8.312e+00
 
9.197e-01
2.513e+00
KOSMOS CEMENT CO.    
2
1.06e+00
---
---
323
14.6
7416
323
2.319e+00
 
3.653e-01
2.509e+00
KOSMOS CEMENT CO.    
4
1.32e+00
---
---
320
15.4
8195
320
3.300e+00
 
5.185e-01
2.505e+00
KOSMOS CEMENT CO.    
3
1.16e+00
---
---
314
14.6
7297
314
2.538e+00
 
4.044e-01
2.497e+00
KOSMOS CEMENT CO.
COND 2
5/92
1
1.16e+00
---
---
310
14.9
7549
310
2.662e+00
 
4.253e-01
2.491e+00
STHDOWN-FRBRN
COND 1
 
2
6.65e-02
---
---
294
11.1
3164
294
9.404e-02
 
-1.027e+00
2.468e+00
STHDOWN-FRBRN
COND 1
 
3
2.88e-02
---
---
275
11.0
3189
275
4.032e-02
 
-1.394e+00
2.439e+00
STHDOWN-FRBRN
COND 1
6/92
1
4.54e-02
---
---
271
10.8
3245
271
6.231e-02
 
-1.205e+00
2.433e+00

 
 
 
Table 3. Cement kiln dioxin data - Holnam Holly Hill.
NAME
KILN#
DATE
RUN#
TOTAL
TEQ
TOTAL
NGDSCM
EXIT
TEMP
STACK
TEMP
O2
FLOW RATE
(dscmm)
TEMP
USED
TEQ at
7% O2
TOTAL DIOXIN
at 7% O2
LOG TEQ
7% 02
LOG 
TEMP
HOLNAM-HHILL
1
7/92
1
1.13e-01
3.82e+01
---
362.5
10.1
3533
362
1.451e-01
4.906e+01
-8.382e-01
2.559e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
2
1.40e-01
8.36e+01
---
371.3
10.1
3271
371
1.798e-01
1.074e+02
-7.452e-01
2.569e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
3
3.02e-01
3.46e+02
---
373.4
10.1
3331
373
3.879e-01
4.444e+02
-4.113e-01
2.572e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL
1-BL
7/92
1
1.90e-02
6.29e+01
---
363.5
10.3
3495
363
2.486e-02
8.230e+01
-1.605e+00
2.560e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
2
9.85e-03
1.69e+02
---
370.8
10.3
3496
370
1.289e-02
2.211e+02
-1.890e+00
2.568e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
3
2.64e-02
1.45e+02
---
366.4
10.3
3332
366
3.454e-02
1.897e+02
-1.462e+00
2.563e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL
2
7/92
1
1.09e+00
8.36e+00
---
488.3
7
3946
488
1.090e+00
8.360e+00
3.743e-02
2.688e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
2
1.49e+00
4.58e+00
---
485.2
7
3965
485
1.490e+00
4.580e+00
1.732e-01
2.686e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
3
1.88e+00
3.98e+00
---
495.8
7.02
3856
495
1.883e+00
3.986e+00
2.748e-01
2.695e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL
2-BL
7/92
1
1.55e-02
---
---
420.1
7
3953
420
1.550e-02
 
-1.810e+00
2.623e+00
HOLNAM-HHILL    
2
5.86e-03
3.26e+02
---
415.6
7
3668
415
5.860e-03
3.260e+02
-2.232e+00
2.618e+00

 
 
 
 


 
 


 
 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gossman Consulting. Commercial BIF compliance test results. Hampshire, Illinois. 1993.

Gossman Consulting. Trial burn and certification of compliance test report. Holly Hill, South Carolina. August 1992.

Gossman Consulting. Trial burn and certification of compliance test report. Clarksville, Missouri. July 1992.

Mittelhauser Corporation. Boiler and industrial furnace regulations: certification of compliance for National Cement Company. Lebec, California. August 1992.

Radian Corporation. Boiler and industrial furnace regulations: certification of compliance for Lafarge Corporation. Alpena, Michigan. August 1992.

Radian Corporation. Boiler and industrial furnace regulations: certification of compliance for Lafarge Corporation. Fredonia, Kansas. August 1992.

USEPA. Boiler and industrial furnace regulations: certification of compliance for Southdown, Inc. Knoxville, Tennessee. June 25, 1992.

USEPA. 40 CFR 266: Burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces. Federal Register 1991;56:35