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Gossman Consulting, Inc.

GCI TECH NOTES©


Volume 1, Number 04 A Gossman Consulting, Inc. Publication April, 1995

Cement Kiln Dust and F039 Limits

Ronald Gossman

Background

Cement kiln dust (CKD) is regulated under the Boiler and Industrial Furnace (BIF) rules. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) says that CKD could be hazardous because of the waste fuel which is being burned. Thus CKD testing from plants burning hazardous wastes now falls under the waste code of F039. Through this maneuver the USEPA placed CKD under the auspices of the Land Disposal Restrictions of 40 CFR Part 268 and other related Parts. The latest USEPA gambit in this tale is the promulgation of revisions to the standards on September 19, 1994 and further "technically" revised on January 3, 1995 entitled "Land Disposal Restrictions Phase II - Universal Treatment Standards, and Treatment Standards for Organic Toxicity Characteristic Wastes and Newly Listed Wastes".

One of the basic premises of this revision was to standardize the required concentration levels for all of the various organic compounds as listed under the individual waste codes. Interestingly, there are over 200 different organic compounds and metals listed under F039. The regulations state that if CKD is to be placed in a non-hazardous landfill then it cannot exceed the limits as specified for the listed organic compounds. This imposes expensive analysis costs on those cement companies burning waste fuels.

The regulations do state that only those compounds which might reasonably be present, due to the fuel being used, need be tested. Cement companies that have done this evaluation are able to reduce the organic list of compounds to be tested to less then half of the F039 list. This provides a significant reduction in the cost of the on-going test program for CKD.

In addition to standardizing the required concentration levels, the USEPA stated that changes were made in the levels to better match the laboratory detection levels. The first numerical column in the attached table was the original F039 limits as published in June, 1990 and made applicable to CKD in November, 1993. The second numerical column provides the limits as they now exist as a result of the latest changes. It behooves all concerned to review any pertinent data against the new limits. If the limits are at or near the detection limits in the laboratory then it is possible that old data no longer proves compliance. It is also interesting to review the absolute change and the percentage change. Many of the changes are relatively small, but there are a few where the change is quite large. There was no apparent explanation for these large changes. For example, toluene was reduced from 28 ppm limit to 10 ppm, a reduction of 18 ppm or 64%. This needs to be watched carefully since toluene has been found at these levels in CKD whether waste fuel was used or not. Benzene is another organic compound to watch where the limit went from 36 ppm to 10, a 72% reduction. A review of the included table shows a reasonably large number of serious reductions in the limits. Strangely, there are a few very large increases in the limits, such as butyl benzyl phthalate.



COMPOUND
Original

FO39

Limit

ppm

New Land

Ban

Limit

ppm



Change


% Change
Acetone 160 160

Acenaphthylene 3.4 3.4

Acenaphthene 4 3.4 -0.6 15% reduction
Acetophenone 9.7 9.7

2-Acetylaminofluorene 140 140

Acrylonitrile 84 84

Aldrin 0.066 0.066

Aniline 14 14

Anthracene 4 3.4 -0.6 15% reduction
Aroclor 1016 0.92 Total

Aroclor 1221 0.92 of

Aroclor 1232 0.92 all

Aroclor 1242 0.92 Aroclors

Aroclor 1248 0.92 is

Aroclor 1254 1.8 now

Aroclor 1260 1.8 10

alpha-BHC 0.066 0.066

beta-BHC 0.066 0.066

delta-BHC 0.066 0.066

gamma-BHC 0.066 0.066

Benzene 36 10 -26 72% reduction
Benz(a)anthracene 8.2 3.4 -4.8 59% reduction
Benzo(b)-fluoranthene 3.4 6.8 3.4 100% increase
Benzo(k)-fluoranthene 3.4 6.8 3.4 100% increase
Benzo(g,h,i)-perylene 1.5 1.8 0.3 20% increase
Benzo(a)pyrene 8.2 3.4 -4.8 59% reduction
Bromodichloromethane 15 15

Bromoform 15 15

Bromomethane 15 15

4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether 15 15

n-Butyl alcohol 2.6 2.6

Butyl benzyl phthalate 7.9 28 20.1 254% increase
2-sec-Butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol 2.5 2.5

Carbon tetrachloride 5.6 6 0.4 7% increase
Chlordane 0.13 0.25 0.12 92% increase
p-Chloroaniline 16 16

Chlorobenzene 5.7 6 0.3 5% increase
Chlorodibromomethane 15 15

Chloroethane 6 6

bis(2-Chloroethoxy)methane 7.2 7.2

bis(2-Chloroethyl)ether 7.2 6 -1.2 17% reduction
Chloroform 5.6 6 0.4 7% increase
bis(2-Chloroisopropyl)ether 7.2 7.2

p-Chloro-m-cresol 14 14

Chloromethane 33 30 -3 9% reduction
2-Chloronaphthalene 5.6 5.6

2-Chlorophenol 5.7 5.7

3-Chloropropylene 28 30 2 7% increase
Chrysene 8.2 3.4 -4.8 59% reduction
o-Cresol 5.6 5.6

Cresol(m- & p- isomers) 3.2 5.6 2.4 75% increase
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 15 15

1,2-Dibromoethane 15 15

Dibromomethane 15 15

2,4-Dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid 10 10

o,p'-DDD 0.087 0.087

p,p'-DDD 0.087 0.087

o,p'-DDE 0.087 0.087

p,p'-DDE 0.087 0.087

o,p'-DDT 0.087 0.087

p,p'-DDT 0.087 0.087

Dibenz(a,h)anthracene 8.2 8.2

m-Dichlorobenzene 6.2 6 -0.2 3% reduction
o-Dichlorobenzene 6.2 6 -0.2 3% reduction
p-Dichlorobenzene 6.2 6 -0.2 3% reduction
Dichlorodifluoromethane 7.2 7.2

1,1-Dichloroethane 7.2 6 -1.2 17% reduction
1,2-Dichloroethane 7.2 6 -1.2 17% reduction
1,1-Dichloroethylene 33 6 -27 82% reduction
trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene 33 30 -3 9% reduction
2,4-Dichlorophenol 14 14

2,6-Dichlorophenol 14 14

1,2-Dichloropropane 18 18

cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 18 18

trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 18 18

Dieldrin 0.13 0.13

Diethyl phthalate 28 28

2,4-Dimethyl phenol 14 14

Dimethyl phthalate 28 28

Di-n-butyl phthalate 28 28

1,4-Dinitrobenzene 2.3 2.3

4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol 160 160

2,4-Dinitrophenol 160 160

2,4-Dinitrotoluene 140 140

2,6-Dinitrotoluene 28 28

Di-n-octyl phthalate 28 28

Di-n-propylnitrosoamine 14 14

1,4-Dioxane 170 170

Disulfoton 6.2 6.2

Endosulfan I 0.066 0.066

Endosulfan II 0.13 0.13

Endosulfan sulfate 0.13 0.13

Endrin 0.13 0.13

Endrin aldehyde 0.13 0.13

Ethyl acetate 33 33

Ethyl cyanide 360 360

Ethyl benzene 6 10 4 67% increase
Ethyl ether 160 160

bis(2-Ethyl-exyl)phthalate 28 28

Ethyl methacrylate 160 160

Famphur 15 15

Fluoranthene 8.2 3.4 -4.8 59% reduction
Fluorene 4 3.4 -0.6 15% teduction
Fluorotrichloromethane 33 30 -3 9% reduction
Heptachlor 0.066 0.066

Heptachlor epoxide 0.066 0.066

Hexachlorobenzene 37 10 -27 73% reduction
Hexachlorobutadiene 28 5.6 -22.4 80% reduction
Hexachlorocyclopeniadiene 3.6 2.4 -1.2 33% reduction
Hexachlorodibenzofurans 0.001 0.001

Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxans 0.001 0.001

Hexachloroethane 28 30 2 7% increase
Hexachloroproplene 28 30 2 7% increase
Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 8.2 3.4 -4.8 59% reduction
Iodomethane 65 65

Isobutanol 170 170

Isodrin 0.066 0.066

Isosafrole 2.6 2.6

Kepone 0.13 0.13

Methacrylonitrile 84 84

Methapyrilene 1.5 1.5

Methoxychlor 0.18 0.18

3-Methylcholanthrene 15 15

4,4-Methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline) 35 30 -5 14% reduction
Methylene chloride 33 30 -3 9% reduction
Methyl ethyl ketone 36 36

Methyl isobutyl ketone 33 33

Methyl methacrylate 160 160

Methyl parathion 4.6 4.6

Naphthalene 3.1 5.6 2.5 81% increase
p-Nitroaniline 28 28

Nitrobenzene 14 14

5-Nitro-o-toluidine 28 28

4-Nitrophenol 29 29

N-Nitrosodiethylamine 28 28

N-Nitroso-di-n-butylamine 17 17

N-Nitrosomethyl-ethylamine 2.3 2.3

N-Nitrosomorpholine 2.3 2.3

N-Nitrosopiperidine 35 35

N-Nitrosopyrrolidine 35 35

Parathion 4.6 4.6

Pentachlorobenzene 37 10 -27 73% reduction
Pentachlorodibenzo-furans 0.001 0.001

Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins 0.001 0.001

Pentachloronitrobenzene 4.8 4.8

Pentachlorophenol 7.4 7.4

Phenacetin 16 16

Phenanthrene 3.1 5.6 2.5 81% increase
Phenol 6.2 6.2

Phorate 4.6 4.6

Pronamide 1.5 1.5

Pyrene 8.2 8.2

Pyridine 16 16

Safrole 22 22

Silvex (2,4,5-TP) 7.9 7.9

2,4,5-T 7.9 7.9

1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 19 14 -5 26% reduction
Tetrachlorodibenzo-furans 0.001 0.001

Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins 0.001 0.001

1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 42 6 -36 86% reduction
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 42 6 -36 86% reduction
Tetrachloroethylene 5.6 6 0.4 7% increase
2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol 37 7.4 -29.6 80% reduction
Toluene 28 10 -18 64% reduction
Toxaphene 1.3 2.6 1.3 100% increase
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 19 19

1,1,1-Trichloroethane 5.6 6 0.4 7% increase
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 5.6 6 0.4 7% increase
Trichloroethylene 5.6 6 0.4 7% increase
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 37 7.4 -29.6 80% reduction
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 37 7.4 -29.6 80% reduction
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 28 30 2 7% increase
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-ethane 28 30 2 7% increase
Vinyl chloride 33 6 -27 82% reduction
Xylene(s) 28 30 2 7% increase
Cyanides (Total) 1.8 590 588.2