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Gossman Consulting, Inc.
GCI TECH NOTES© 
Volume 2, Number 06                  A Gossman Consulting, Inc. Publication               June, 1996 
Continuous Monitoring Requirements BIF Versus HWC
Craig Cape

Since the Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors (HWC) was released in draft form to the public on or about March 21, 1996 many interested people have begun to review and prepare comments on this proposed rule. Among many significant questions about this rule was one which asks how does this set of regulations compare to those of BIF? The BIF rule, which significantly further regulated the burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces, was published as a final rule February 21, 1991. Subsequent to that publication, several amendments have altered some aspects of the rule, such as the removal of the alternative hydrocarbon Tier III compliance method. Now, with the release of the proposed HWC rules, not just amendments to BIF but very fundamental changes are being proposed for those same boilers and industrial furnaces as well as for most other hazardous waste burners.

One of the general areas of the proposed rule under review by GCI is that of assessing the change proposed to 40 CFR regulations. To summarize, the basic sections changed are found in Parts 60, 63, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, and 271. This article will focus more on some key aspects of the impact of Part 63. What is key about this Part is that subpart EEE replaces many of the most significant areas in Part 266 which establishes the BIF regulations. Of major importance is the change proposed to the continuous monitoring requirements which includes continuous emission monitoring (CEM) and other process monitoring systems.

To anyone who has read some or all of the published documents describing and supporting the HWC rules, it has become very clear that the proposed rule is at least very complex. To aid in solving some the complexity, GCI has prepared a table which makes a comparison of continuous monitoring systems (CMS) required by the BIF rules to the CMS requirements of the proposed HWC rules. This table will help with understanding the impact on some of the required compliance operating activities proposed in this rule. It can also provide a framework to begin to estimate the additional capital and operational costs as compared to the current monitoring costs. These issues should be relevant to those who will make official comment on these proposed rules as well as to those whose job is to manage and operate a facility potentially regulated by them.

Among the most significant impacts is that of the proposed use of CEMs for control of emissions not previously monitored on a continuous basis, such as particulate matter. Also significant is the fact that the proposed rule calls for different and additional averaging periods to the continuous monitoring requirements.

Some other issues from the table that concern CMSs, and are important to briefly discuss, are changes to the automatic waste fuel cut-off system (AWFCOs) and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program. These two items were included in the BIF regulations, but have been expanded under the proposed rule. AWFCOs are being linked to more activities than under BIF, such as the monitoring of combustion zone pressures. AWFCOs which do occur are requiring much more documentation and reporting than under BIF. This includes a definition for excessive AWFCOs and a requirement to specifically report them to EPA. The appendix to Part 63, subpart EEE requires the development and implementation of a QA/QC program for the CMSs. It should be noted that the rule specifically includes any associated equipment (thermocouples, pressure transducers, etc.) along with the monitor for inclusion in the QA/QC program. QA/QC requirements under the proposed rule include by reference sections of part 63.8 in addition to those of the appendix. QA/QC requirements also include a linkage between routine QA/QC check activities and AWFCOs. This, in essence, requires an AWFCO for certain routine adjustments. All operators currently have some level of QA/QC that they use for their CMS now; but the issue is, will it conform with the proposed rule requirements?

These issues, those of reduced emission levels, and others which involve the routine monitoring activities should make this table a valuable resource in considering the impacts of the proposed rule. We encourage all that are impacted by this proposed rule to carefully evaluate it and comment to EPA.

CMS Comparison BIF Versus HWC
 
CMS Item BIF Compliance Method BIF Compliance Standard Setting  BIF Compliance Monitoring HWC Compliance Methods HWC Compliance Standard Setting HWC Compliance Monitoring
PM No Continuous Emission Monitoring of PM required 

Continuous Emission Monitoring of PM Required

Compliance/ Trial Burn Test: 

Emission Sampling

Standard by Rule: 

180 mg/dscm 

  • per test sample

Two Methods: 

Compre. Perform. Test 

PM Standard 

  • CEM 
Standard by Rule: 

69 mg/dscm 

  • 2- hr. roll. ave. 

 
 
 
 

  • none



  • Site -Specific PM Limit (see SVM, LVM, and D/F) 
  • CEM

  •  
     
    Standard Set by Test: 

    (two limit values) 

    • ave. over all runs of max. 10 min. rolling ave. for each run
    • ave. of all one min. ave. over all runs

     
     
     
     

  • 10 min. rolling ave.

  •  
     
     
     
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • Operating Limits: 
    • max. production rate (tons/hour)
    • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • Operating Limits: 

    None, specific for PM (PM is an operating limit under HWC)



    • Total Haz. Waste Feed
     
     
     
    • Pumpable Haz. Waste Feed
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • same as above
  • hourly rolling ave.

  •  
     
     
     
     
     
  • same as above



    • max. combustion chamber temp.
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.



  • PM 

    (cont.)

    • max. temp. at APCD
  • see below
  • see below



    • min. kVA for an ESP
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.



    • max. flue gas flow rate
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.



    • min. pressure drop for a baghouse
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.



  • Max. Combust chamber Pressure No CMS required 
    • combustion zone pressure, or
    • totally sealed combustion zone, or
    • approved alternative
    Standard by Rule: 
    • lower than atmospheric pressure
    No requirement CMS required 
    • max. combustion zone pressure, or
    • totally sealed combustion zone, or
    • approved alternative (must specify method in operating plan)
    Standard by Rule: 
    • lower than ambient pressure
  • instantaneous monitor
  • CMS/AWFCO
  • CO 
     
     

    (Main Stack)

    Compliance/Trial Burn Test 
    • CEM
    Standard by Rule: 

    100 ppm

     
     
     
     

    • Hourly rolling ave.
    Compre./Confir. Performance Test 

    No CO required



    CO 

    (Main Stack) 

    (Cont.) 

    (Bypass Duct Only)

    or 
    • CO alternative

    •  
       
       
       
       
       
    • and (HC) CEM
    Standard by Test: 

    test ave. value 

    • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
    • (see HC)

     
     

  • hourly rolling ave.

  •  
     
     
     
     
     
  • (see HC)



  • Compliance/Trial Burn Test 
    • CEM
    Standard by Rule: 

    100 ppm

     
     
     
     

    • hourly rolling ave.
    Compre./Confir. Performance Test 
    • CEM
    Standard by Rule: 

    100 ppm CO

     
     
     
     

    • hourly rolling ave.
    or 
    • CO (alternative)

    •  
       
       
       
       
       
    and (HC) CEM
    Standard by Test: 

    test ave. value 

    • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
    • (see HC)

     
     

  • hourly rolling ave.

  •  
     
     
     
     
     
  • (see HC)
  • or 
    • (HC) CEM
    Standard by Rule: 

    6.7 ppm HC

     
     

    • hourly rolling ave.
    HC Compliance/Trial Burn Test 
    • CEM
    Standard by Rule: 

    20 ppm

     
     
     
     

    • hourly rolling ave
    Compre./Confir. Performance test 
    • CEM
    (for main stack) 

    Standard by Rule: 

    20 ppm

     
     
     
     

    • hourly rolling ave.
    O2 Compliance/Trial Burn Test 
    • CEM
    No standard 
     
     
    • monitor for O2 correction

     
     
     
     

  • monitor for O2 correction
  • Compre./Confir. Performance test 
    • CEM
    No standard 
     
     
    • monitor for O2 correction

     
     
     
     

  • monitor for O2 correction
  • Max. temp. @ dry PM device 

    (APCD)

    Compliance/Trial Burn Test 
    • CMS
    Standard by Test: 

    test ave. value 

    • ave. over metal and chlorine runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run

     
     

  • hourly rolling ave.
  • Compre./Confir. Performance Test 
    • CMS
    Standard by Test: 

    test ave. values 

    • ave. over D/F runs of max. 10 min. rolling ave. for each run
    • ave. level over all D/F runs

     
     

  • 10 min. rolling ave.

  •  
     
     
     
     
     
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • D/F Conditionally required for Compliance or Trial Burn Test Standard by Rule: 

    Risk Assessment


    Required for Compre./Confir. Performance Test Standard by Rule: 

    0.2 ng/dscm, TEQ


    No CEM

    No CEM

    Operating Limits 

    (no specific limits beyond the risk assessment)



    Operating Limits: 
    • max. temp. @ dry APCD
    • (see above)

    •  
       
    • (see above)

    •  
       



    • min. combustion chamber temperature
  • ave. over all runs of the lowest 10 min. rolling ave. for each run
  • ave. level over all runs
  • 10 min. rolling ave.

  •  
     
     
     
     
     
  • hourly rolling ave.



    • max. flue gas flow, or production rate
  • ave. over all runs of the max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.



    • max. H.W. feedrate
  • ave. over all runs of the max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.



  • BATCH or CONTAINERS ONLY 
    • max. batch size

     
     
     
     

  • lowest mass batch fed during test
  •  
     
     
     

  • batch mas



    • min. batch feeding frequency
  • longest interval between batch or container feedings during Comp. test
  • batch time interval
  • D/F 

    (Cont.)




    • min. combustion zone O2
  • highest instantaneous O2 level for any batch or container fed during testing
  • O2 concentration



    • (Cks) hot end injec.
    • Exempt but require documentation
  • container 1 gal. or less
  • firing rate not to exceed rate during test
  • container 1 gal. or less
  • firing rate not to exceed rate during test



    • PM limit
    • CEM

    •  
       
    • Site-specific limits
  • test level

  •  
     

    1. ave. over all runs of the max. 10 min. rolling ave. for each run 

    2. ave. of all one min. ave. over all runs

    • 2-hour rolling ave.

    •  
       
    • 10-min. rolling ave.

    •  
       
       
       
       
       
    • hourly rolling ave.



    Confirmatory Performance Test 
    • 17-19 months after Comprehensive Test
    • Normal operating condition determined by the ave. value of prev. 18 months of one min. averages
    .
    D/F 

    (cont.)




    (optional) 
    • Carbon Injection
    • Carbon Bed
    • Catalytic Oxidizer
    • Inhibitor Feedrate


    Hg Compliance/Trial 

    Burn Test

    Standard by Site-Specific Conditions
    Comprehensive Performance Test Standard by Rule: 

    50 ug/dscm


    No CEM

    CEM
    • 10-hour rolling ave.
    Operating Limits: 
    • max. total feedrate of Hg
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • or (Waiver of CEMs) 
    • determine max. possible Hg emission from max. Hg feed
  • <50 ug/dscm Hg emissions based on total input
  • analysis of all feeds (no ave. period given)
    • max. total feedrate of Hg for haz. waste

    •  
       
    • max. total feedrate of Hg for pumpable haz. waste
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.

  •  
     
     
     
     
     
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • min stack gas flow rate or surrogate
  • Not given.
    • connected to AWFCs
    • max. total feedrate of HCl/Cl2
  • see SVM & LVM
  • see SVM & LVM
  • No requirement.

    • max. prod. rate
  • see SVM & LVM
  • see SVM & LVM
  • No requirement.

    • max. combustion chamber temp.
  • see SVM & LVM
  • see SVM & LVM
  • No requirement.

    • max. flue gas temp. at the APCD
  • see SVM & LVM
  • see SVM & LVM
  • No requirement.

    • ESP min. kVA
  • see SVM & LVM
  • see SVM & LVM
  • No requirement.

    Hg 

    (Cont.)

    • baghouse min. pressure drop
  • see SVM & LVM
  • see SVM & LVM
  • No requirement.

    SVM 

    (Cd, Pb)

    Compliance/Trial 

    Burn Test

    Standard by Site-Specific Conditions 

    (separate metals)


    Comprehensive Performance Test: Standard by Rule: 

    57 ug/dscm combined


    No CEM

    CEM
    • 10-hour rolling ave.
    Operating limits: 

    No PM limit



    or 

    Operating Limits: 

    PM limit 

    • CEM
    • Site-Specific CEM

     
     
     
     

  • (see PM #1)
  • (see PM #2)
  •  
     
     
     

  • (see PM #1)
  • (see PM #2)
    • max. total feedrate of separate metals
  • ave. over all runs of highest hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • max. total feedrate of Cd, Pb combined
  • ave. feedrate over all runs
  • 12-hour rolling ave.
    • max. total feedrate of HCl/Cl2
  • ave. over all runs of highest hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • max. chlorine feedrate
  • ave. feedrate over all runs
  • 12-hour rolling ave.
    • max. production rate
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • min. gas flow rate or surrogate
  • ave. over all runs of lowest hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
    • max. combustion chamber temp.
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • No requirement

    • max. flue gas temp. at the APCD
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • No requirement

    SVM 

    (Cd, Pb) 

    (Cont.)

    • ESP min. kVA
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • No requirement

    • Baghouse min. pressure drop
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • No requirement

    LVM 

    (As, Be, Cr, Sb) 

    Compliance/Trial 

    Burn Test

    Standard by Site-Specific Conditions 

    (separate metals)


    Comprehensive Performance Test: Standard by Rule: 

    130 ug/dscm combined


    No CEM

    CEM
    • 10-hour rolling ave.
    Operating Limits: 

    No PM Limits



    or 

    Operating Limits: 

    PM limits 

    • CEM
    • Site-Specific CEM

     
     
     
     

    • (see PM #1)
    • (see PM #2)

     
     
     
     

    • (see PM #1)
    • (see PM #2)
    • max total feedrate of separate metals
  • ave. over all runs of highest hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • max. total feedrate of As, Be, Cr, and Sb combined

  •  
     
  • max. feedrate of As, Be, Cr, and Sb from pumpable feedstream
  • ave. feedrate over all runs

  •  
     
     
     
  • ave, feedrate over all runs
  • 12-hour rolling ave.

  •  
     
     
     
     
     
  • 12- hour rolling ave.
    • max total feedrate of HCl/Cl2
  • ave. over all runs of highest hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • max. chlorine feedrate
  • ave, feedrate over all runs
  • 12-hour rolling ave.
    • max. production rate
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • min. gas flow rate or surrogate
  • ave. over all runs of lowest hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • LVM 

    (As, Be, Cr, Sb) 

    (cont.)

    • max. combustion chamber temp.
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • No requirement

    • max. flue gas temp. at the APCD
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • No requirement

    • ESP min. kVA
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • No requirement

    • Baghouse min. pressure drop
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  • hourly rolling ave.
  • No requirement

    HCl/Cl2 Compliance/Trial 

    Burn Test:

    Standard by Site-Specific Conditions
    Comprehensive Performance Test: Standard by Rule: 

    630 ppm combined


    No CEM

    CEM
    • hourly rolling ave.
    Operating Limits: 
    • total HCl/Cl2 feedrate

    •  
       
       
       
    • max. production rate

     
     

  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run

  •  
     
    • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run

     
     

    • hourly rolling ave.

    •  
       
       
       
       
       
    • hourly rolling ave.
    or 

    Operating Limits: 

    • total HCl/Cl2 feedrate

    •  
       
       
       
    • max. flue gas flow rate or production rate

     
     

  • ave. feedrate over all runs

  •  
     
     
     
  • ave. over all runs of max. hourly rolling ave. for each run
  •  
     

  • 12-hour rolling ave.

  •  
     
     
     
     
     
  • hourly rolling ave.
  •